Catalytic converters (CAT) are designed to turn harmful constituents of exhaust emitted by internal combustion engines into harmless gases by means of a chemical reaction. A catalytic converter is therefore an important part of modern emission purification systems for SI and diesel engines.
The Euro 6 emission standard is a directive that defines which and how many pollutants a new car is allowed to emit in order to be registered in the European Union. It is an evolution of the previous Euro standards and sets strict limits for various pollutants produced by internal combustion engines.
The exhaust manifold is tasked with collecting the exhaust fumes generated by an internal combustion engine and conveying them towards the catalytic converter or turbocharger. The name refers to the assorted inlets and outlets present on the manifold, which guide the exhaust fumes emitted from the cylinder head towards the underbody.